Mammalian Diving Reflex

That means as soon as your face hits the water, you will start to experience a drop in heart rate; your blood vessels will shrink and fill up with plasma to prevent your lungs from collapsing; and blood is directed away from the limbs to the heart, lungs, and brain.
One training method is the apnea walk. You start by relaxing your body and taking a few deep breaths, followed by a one-minute breath hold taken at rest. Then you walk as far as you can without taking a breath (top free divers can walk for over four hundred meters). This trains your muscles to operate under anaerobic conditions and to tolerate the buildup of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream.
Hyperventilating before a dive lowers the level of carbon dioxide in your lungs and bloodstream, which fools your body into thinking that it is less starved of oxygen than it really is. However, it doesn’t raise the amount of oxygen, so most free divers only take three or four oxygenating breaths before a dive.
Always train and dive with a friend. Diving alone is the main cause of serious accidents. If you black out, you need a friend to drag you back to the surface and give you the kiss of life.

Muscle Building

Irrespective of age and gender, every physique has the capacity to build big muscle, provided it is trained and given rest at proper periods. There are countless build-rock-hard-muscle formulas out there, promising guaranteed satisfaction or your money back, accompanied by pictures of guys who have added thirty pounds of muscle in just twelve weeks. Ignore them.
Allow your body adequate time to recuperate between training sessions. One of the pitfalls of “hard gainers” (those who build muscle slowly) is overtraining.
Don’t waste time training your abs to get a six-pack. Fat is burned all over the body when you train, not just in certain areas. Lose weight and your six-pack will appear.
Drink at least eight glasses of water a day and get at least eight hours of sleep each night.
Don’t inject yourself daily with HGH (human growth hormone). They may contribute to freakish muscle growth, but the risk of heart disease just isn’t worth it.


The term “lie detector” is a bit of a misnomer. We simply don’t have the technology to confirm whether a subject is lying. Instead, the test measures the subject’s level of excitement, and it’s up to the examiner to correlate that excitement with falsehoods.


The examiner will ask you three types of questions: irrelevant, relevant, and control. An example of an irrelevant question is “What is your name?” or “What color is your shirt?” A relevant question pertains to the issue in question: “Did you steal the money?” or “Have you ever taken illicit drugs?” 
These questions will elicit an emotional response, such as raised blood pressure, pulse, sweat response, and breathing, all of which are measured by the polygraph machine. This response will be compared to readings taken when you answer the control questions. These will induce a mild emotional response but aren’t relevant to the investigation, such as “Have you ever lied to your parents?” or “Have you broken the speed limit this week?”
The examiner is looking for response patterns for answers that are known to be true, to compare them to patterns for answers that could be false.


The best way to beat the test is to refuse to take one. If your polygraph is for a criminal investigation, your refusal is generally inadmissible in court. However, some employers will still insist on a polygraph test as part of the hiring process (for example, the US government still requires them for some positions). In this case, your best weapon is the knowledge that these tests are fallible and can be beaten.


If you suddenly find yourself in a scene straight out of Pulp Fiction and your mob boss’s girlfriend collapses to the ground with a stopped heart, what can you do? Especially if you don’t happen to have a savvy drug-dealer pal to hand you a needle filled with adrenaline and talk you through it?
Believe it or not, you have a number of options.

CALL 1-1-2

If you don’t have any clue about what to do (and honestly, even if you do), call 1-1-2 first. Put your phone in speaker mode, as you’ll need your hands free if you want to follow the instructions of the emergency operator.

NOTE– 112 is an Indian emergency no. for ambulance calling, you should check your own emergency no. of your country.


The first thing most sane people attempt in such a situation is to perform CPR. If you slept through your first aid class (or never bothered to take one), that stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Cardio means “heart,” pulmonary means “lungs,” and resuscitation means “getting them going again.”
CPR is a series of chest compressions and breaths. Performed correctly, they can keep your friend alive until the ambulance arrives and the EMTs can take over. If you’re lucky, it might even restart a stopped heart.

 CPR is performed in a series of steps:

  1. Pump the chest thirty times by placing the heel of your hand in the center of the person’s chest, putting your other hand on top of that one, and pressing the chest down two inches at a rate of one hundred per minute.
  2. Tilt the person’s head back and lift his chin to open the airway.
  3. Pinch his nose closed, take a normal breath, cover the person’s mouth with yours and blow out your breath until you see his chest rise. Go ahead and give another breath, taking about one second per breath.
  4. Repeat steps one through three until help arrives.

If you have trouble keeping track of chest compressions, just follow the beat of the Bee Gees’ hit song “Stayin’ Alive.” It lines up almost perfectly.


Many offices, schools, and other public places feature AEDs (automated external defibrillators). If you don’t see one when you need it, ask. Stress causes people to forget they’re standing next to such things.
Follow the instructions on the AED to the letter. These are designed to be easy and safe to use. Once you attach the pads to the patient, the machine analyzes the attached heartbeat and delivers a shock designed to restart it.
Don’t mess around with a defibrillator just for fun. The same shock that can start a stopped heart can just as easily stop a beating heart.

One thought on “BASIC KNOWLEDGE

  • Thank you for sharing your info. I really appreciate your efforts and I am waiting for your further
    write ups thanks once again.

  • Leave a Reply

    Please rate*

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *